Open thread

open thread

A few weeks ago we put an offer on a nice big house in Te Puke. We’ll share it with our daughter, her partner and three children, and it couldn’t go through without selling our present house. It’s been a bit difficult keeping the house in pristine order as buyers streamed through at odd hours to inspect it but now an offer is about to go unconditional, which means we will move out in two weeks. But not into the new house until it is vacated, so our lives are still unpredictable. It’s frustrating having so little time to contribute to the blog and I apologise for apparently paying little attention to the flurry of climate activity ahead of Paris; well, not really climate activity but activity concerning the climate—the climate itself is no more chaotic than usual. Anyway, here’s a fresh open thread. I’m watching, and I’ll have something substantial for you soon. A special note to the fourteen thousand patient, unseen readers every month from all over the world: thank you very much for visiting.

UPDATE 2230, Friday Nov 6

The deal went unconditional late this afternoon. So, we’ve sold the house, hurrah! Two weeks to get out. Another adventure.

UPDATE 0955, Friday Nov 13

Late last Tuesday, we finally made our offer on the Te Puke house unconditional. So we have a house to go to! We just have to wait until the 8th of December to take possession. We are all such happy campers!

Just six days to go before the truck arrives here to take everything into storage.

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Maggy Wassilieff

Bob Tisdale’s new e-book “On global warming and the illusion of control” is available for anyone….

Richard C (NZ)

Much to take issue with in Bib Tisdale’s e-book. Some is demonstrably wrong, other stuff too superficial to get to what’s critical. But some good stuff too. A few examples from a brief and very incomplete skim (i.e I would need to read it in detail to do this properly): # Fails to apply theoretical anthro forcing to the IPCC’s latest estimates of the TOA energy imbalance (as the IPCC fails also). All else is moot having done this, as below. # The IPCC’s primary metric for climate change is NOT surface temperature. That is a secondary effect of the TOA energy imbalance according to the IPCC who say the imbalance “controls” surface temperature in their radiative forcing paradigm. Obviously if a valid non-anthro forcing can be demonstrated (it can) then that that is what “controls” climate change and surface temperature, especially when anthro forcing can easily be shown to be invalid. # Fails to distinguish between the properties of solar infrared radiation (IR-A/B) and atmospheric infrared (IR-C/DLR) in terms of say, energy-per-photon, quantified heating agents (e.g. solar tropical ocean heating in W.m-2), and how much of DLR is the anthro component e.g.… Read more »

Richard C (NZ)

Interesting update above RT. A tip for Te Puke roads late March – June and July – early November (gap in the middle). Lots of fatigued drivers, different nationalities, from kiwifruit packhouses (day & night shifts) doing stupid things, One local women (husband, 2 children) killed from where I worked this year when she forgot her cell phone and did a U-turn in front of a logging truck. At another packhouse I worked at a few days this year two people have been killed at the rail crossing entry in the past. I had to literally fight to stay awake through the new orange expressway lights at sunrise after working 7pm – 6am. Strange phenomenon, OK in ordinary streetlights. There are teams doing 8am – 7:30pm where I work at the moment, some start at 7am. Fatigue and attendant inattention is a very nasty condition. We get issued booklets on how to deal with it (and night shifting) both at work and to and from but fact is it can catch people badly and impact others too. I saw two van loads of what looked like Indian orchard workers that had managed to… Read more »

Richard C (NZ)

‘The Other Half Of The Big Antarctica Lie’ Posted on November 3, 2015 by tonyheller This is big. Bookmark it. “It has nothing to do with climate” Last week, NASA announced that the IPCC is wrong about East Antarctica, which is gaining ice, not losing it. Climate Depot: 23 Jan 1977, Page 13 – Independent Press-Telegram – Jan. 23, 1977 “We’re seeing the west ice sheet on its way out,” said Cameron. “It seems to be doing something completely different than the east ice sheet. It has nothing to do with climate, just the dynamics of unstable ice.” [Note: Dr. Richard Cameron was National Science Foundation ( NSF) program manager for glaciology.] [Climate Depot Note: With this startling revelation that the National Science Foundation knew that mankind was not responsible for ‘collapse’ of West Antarctic ice sheet, the question begs why they hid it all of these years since! Will Sen. Sheldon Whitehouse investigate the Antarctic ice cover up with the same zeal they are going after the alleged ‘Exxon knew’ controversy? What did warmist scientists know and when did they know it? Will there be ‘smoking gun’ hidden documents to reveal… Read more »


We knew this about the WAIS for ages.

Apparently, “global warming” was causing the WAIS to become unstable and get “close to collapse”, despite only having limited data and knowledge of the sub-glacial volcanic activity

Good enough for government work

Richard C (NZ)

>”Minister of Climate Change”

Doubles as Minister of Unicorns. Tough work load.

Richard C (NZ)

‘GOP chairman: Agency obstructing climate science probe’

By Timothy Cama – 11/04/15 The Hill

Rep. Lamar Smith (R-Texas), chairman of the House Science Committee, said NOAA’s assertion of confidentiality over scientists’ internal communications is not legally valid.

Smith [a Lawyer] threatened NOAA head Kathryn Sullivan with civil or criminal action if she does not comply with his previous subpoena.

“Your failure to comply with the committee’s subpoena has delayed the committee’s investigation and thwarted the committee’s constitutional obligation to conduct oversight of the executive branch,” Smith wrote in the letter. “Furthermore, your failure to comply with a duly issued subpoena may expose you to civil and/or criminal enforcement mechanisms.”

“Contrary to NOAA’s public comments, it is not the position of NOAA to determine what is, or is not, responsive to the committee’s investigation or whether certain communications are confidential,” he wrote.

Smith demanded that the NOAA provide the documents he wants by Friday and wants his staff to interview Tom Karl, the lead scientist on the study, by next Tuesday.

Richard C (NZ)

‘China’s CO2 Charade Shows Who The Real Climate Deniers Are’

Written by Investor’s Business Daily on 05 November 2015.

On the eve of the Paris summit, we learn that China has been fudging its carbon emission data for years. That this is a surprise to anyone shows how blind climate change advocates are to reality these days.

China apparently has been burning 17% more coal annually than it has claimed over the past 15 years. And as a result, it’s been emitting a billion tons more CO2 a year than it had admitted. The New York Times points out that this difference alone is equal to what Germany’s entire economy produces each year from burning fossil fuels.

In other words, if Germany shut down its entire economy, it wouldn’t compensate for China’s “error.”


This British MP has a fairly good grasp of facts.

About 7 mins of video, worth watching

Richard C (NZ)

‘Heat From Deep Ocean Fault Punches Hole in Arctic Ice Sheet ‘

Written by James Edward Kamis, guest post on 06 November 2015.

“Funny how things sometime turn out. Who would have believed that a seemingly insignificant and very small hole in the Arctic sea ice could have such major implications: It’s not all about man-made atmospheric warming. Geological forces are alive and well in the Arctic ocean and for that matter across much of planet earth.”

Mike Jowsey

A BBC follow-up on the joker who applied to NZ High Court for Climate Refugee status:

If the alleged climate hardships of life in Kiribati are such a non issue, that Kiribati people can’t even be bothered to apply for lottery places to migrate to New Zealand, what possibly justification could there have ever been for the ridiculous waste of time and resources, represented by Mr. Teitiota’s application for climate refugee status? How can there be any doubt that the New Zealand High Court made the right decision, to reject Mr. Teitiota’s bogus climate refugee claim?

As I wrote over 2 years ago, “Of weather refugees there may be many, but of climate refugees – habeas corpus, please. “

Richard C (NZ)

‘Has Indonesia Fiddled Its CO2 Emissions Data?’

November 7, 2015, By Paul Homewood

It is hard to avoid Kevin’ [Marshall’s] conclusion:

“The figure for 2005 is about 1400 MtCO2e, not the 1800 MtCO2e stated in the INDC. The Indonesian’s have fiddled their own unaudited figures to get a politically desired result – an easily achievable “reduction” in GHG emissions.”

Mike Jowsey

Russia’s Putin Says Global Warming Is ‘A Fraud’
“We found that, while climate change does exist, it is cyclical, and the anthropogenic role is very limited,” Illarionov said. “It became clear that the climate is a complicated system and that, so far, the evidence presented for the need to ‘fight’ global warming was rather unfounded.”


In the spirit of “open thread”, I thought this video from TEDx Christchurch was worth sharing

It is presented by the cofounder of Tesla, and yet it is not about electric vehicles, it is about jet turbine powered garbage trucks

I thought this was very interesting as an engineering concept and presented in a very low key style that is quite unusual in TED talks.

Richard C (NZ)

‘Katherine Hayhoe Caught Bearing False Witness – Yet Again’ Posted on November 10, 2015 by tonyheller [see graphics] She says that 86% of Texas is currently in drought, but none of Texas is in drought, and they are having one of their wettest years on record. Katherine is exposing herself as an extreme sociopath. What drives such sick behavior? In comments: Richard T. Fowler says: Unfortunately, she is coming across as, at the very least, highly delusional. I don’t know what’s in her heart regarding all the technical matters that she expounds upon, but I know that she’s spreading a lot of lies. Whether she’s smart enough to know that they’re lies, I don’t know. The churches today are overflowing with people who are embracing false doctrines. Itchy ears — they only receive what they want to. And if they’re given anything else, they’re gone, fast. And I don’t necessarily have a problem with that. The problem in her case is she’s being enabled by false “church leaders”. I love Katharine Hayhoe, too. But she needs more than our love. She needs a lot of help, and it seems like she’s not… Read more »

Richard C (NZ)

The warmists are content to allow overt serial liar Katherine Hayhoe free reign but evidence-free conspiracy theory in respect to an oil company deserves a US State investigation, apparently: ‘New York Attorney General Tries to Criminalize Scientific Dissent on Climate Change’ Hans von Spakovsky / November 06, 2015 Everyone reading this should do the attorney general of New York, Eric T. Schneiderman, a big favor: buy a copy of the U.S. Constitution, highlight the First Amendment in the Bill of Rights with a bright yellow or orange Sharpie, and mail him a copy. Schneiderman obviously needs a remedial lesson in the fact that the government is banned from censoring or restricting speech, and certainly has no business “investigating” Americans, including corporations, for their views on – of all things – a contentious scientific theory. The New York Times is reporting that Schneiderman has subpoenaed extensive financial records, emails and other documents of Exxon Mobil to investigate whether the company “lied to the public about the risks of climate change or to investors about how such risk might hurt the oil business.” In addition to ignoring the First Amendment, Schneiderman is apparently unaware that… Read more »

Richard C (NZ)

Eric Schneiderman Vs. Exxon Mobil Written by Bloomberg Editorial on 10 November 2015. Exactly what New York Attorney General Eric Schneiderman hopes to discover in the stack of climate-change documents he’s ordered Exxon Mobil to produce is unclear, because his investigation isn’t public. But he apparently suspects that the company lied to investors about the risks climate change posed to its future profits — which, if true, might be fraud. His grounds seem pretty thin. Much as one may sympathize with Schneiderman’s desire to encourage stronger action on climate change, this is not the way to go about it. Exxon’s critics have argued that the company’s own researchers believed, as far back as the 1970s, that carbon emissions from the burning of fossil fuels were causing climate change. Yet, as they point out, Exxon has long opposed strong action on emissions, and until a few years ago gave financial support to researchers and campaigners that cast doubt on the scientific consensus. The company later acknowledged that this was unwise: In 2007, it said it would stop funding such groups. The earlier practice deserved no prizes for good corporate citizenship — but failing to… Read more »

Richard C (NZ)

>”What is worse, the New York Times article reports that the attorney general has been engaged in a similar, secret investigation of Peabody Energy, the nation’s largest coal producer, for the past two years. Unfortunately, Peabody has apparently been cooperating in the investigation that violates the company’s fundamental First Amendment rights.” ‘Ailing coal giant Peabody reaches settlement over misleading climate comments’ November 10, 2015, Kevin McCoy The world’s largest publicly-traded coal company has agreed to make fuller public disclosures about the risks climate change poses to its business in a settlement of charges that it misled investors and the public. Peabody Energy (BTU) reached the settlement after a two-year investigation found the St. Louis-based company’s public statements about the potential economic impact of climate change didn’t always square with the firm’s internal financial projections, the New York Attorney General Eric Schneiderman said Monday. Peabody shares were up 4.7 per cent at $US15.28 in Monday trading after the announcement. The coal giant’s stock has lost nearly nearly 88 per cent of its value this year since a February 25 high of $US118.95 a share amid a global plummet of energy prices. The agreement comes… Read more »

Richard C (NZ)

>”The coal giant’s stock has lost nearly nearly 88 per cent of its value this year since a February 25 high of $US118.95 a share amid a global plummet of energy prices.” [14.47 latest – see below] So why bother continuing with a 2 year climate risk investigation? Peabody is going broke (see below). 118.95 was already the greater fall from the 5 yr high of 1090.65: Coal giant? Was 5 yrs ago but not now. Mkt cap 286.7M, that’s no giant. Maybe it still is in terms of production but that is meaningless when the company value has gone. The “business impact of laws, regulations and policies related to climate change” is an inconsequential risk compared to what has already actually taken place. The “global plummet of energy prices” is just the start of a global recession i.e. still a lot more downside to Peabody’s value when that kicks in but the company will be bankrupt first (along with many other corporations, states and nations, cities, etc). ‘From hero to zero: Peabody Energy Corp.’ Case Study Competition 2015 4 – Projections for 2020 Table 4 – Coal price forecast, Australia… Read more »

Richard C (NZ)

HSBC to shed 50,000 Jobs. HP already cutting up to 33,300 jobs, IBM similar. Siemens axing 13,500 jobs. 75,000 layoffs and counting in the oil bust. ‘Maersk Line to Cut 4,000 Jobs as Market Deteriorates’ Slowing growth in China and the eurozone’s anemic economy have pushed freight rates to levels that barely cover fuel costs. The rates have been hovering well below $1,000 a container on the main Asia-to-Europe trade loop for much of the year, much lower than the $1,300-a-container average that ship operators say they need to break even in the long-term. Those rates come during what is supposed to be peak season for container shipping, as retailers stock up on clothing, electronics, home appliances and toys ahead of the year-end holidays. # # # If you look at the graph of freight rates in the article, the Oct 15 spot rate Shanghei to Europe was $428. I watched a huge Maersk container vessel almost full come in to Port of Tauranga this morning. Got me wondering how long NZ has got before the global recession hits us here. Great for imports and exports that freight rates are low but… Read more »

Mike Jowsey

@RC: we won’t know what is hitting us until it hits us, eh.

Richard C (NZ)

>”we won’t know what is hitting us until it hits us, eh.” We’ve had a trial run Mile – 2008. US sub-prime mortgage derivitives leading to global financial crisis (GFC). And I vividly remember watching in astonishment years ago as a log ship sailed out of Port of Tauranga empty because trade credit would not be honoured by the banks at the Korean end. That led to huge financial stress and default by forestry contractors who have large capital investment in plant, also plenty of layoffs around the port and logistics. It’s international trade finance that is the greatest risk and I think most NZ exporters are totally dependent on the availability of it (over 11 $trillion per year required globally). When that stops, trade stops. Period. Real hard cash becomes king. Electronic bank balances mean nothing when banks shut up shop. KiwiBank deposits are the only bank deposits “guaranteed” by the NZ govt after the last GFC. Banks operate on the theory that everyone does not withdraw at once but that is exactly what happens in a financial crisis (think Greece). This looming GFC will make the last one look ordinary IMO.… Read more »

Richard C (NZ)

‘Exxon + 49 Other Big Polluters Set to Be Investigated for Causing Extreme Weather Events’ Kumi Naidoo | November 11, 2015 [Greenpeace head] A few weeks ago the first ever human rights legal action seeking the accountability of the 50 big polluters was launched. Filed by Filipino typhoon survivors and several environmental organizations, it demands that the Philippines Human Rights Commission (CHR) investigate and acknowledge the complicity of 50 investor-owned fossil fuel companies in causing extreme weather events. This comes from a consensus that the typhoons and catastrophic storms that annually batter the Philippines and many other small island nations, are exacerbated by climate change caused by the burning of fossil fuels by distant and faceless energy companies. People in the Philippines know that they are at the end of a terrible chain reaction that destroys homes, ruins health and takes lives and livelihoods. It violates their basic human rights, so they, like many others, are starting to seek climate justice. # # # So proof and evidence is from a “consensus” that there is an “exacerbation” mechanism. It will be interesting to read the details of said mechanism i.e. how vehicle… Read more »

Richard C (NZ)

‘The Climate Change Inquisition Begins’ New York’s Attorney general is sending out the message that corporations who fund climate change skeptics will face political reprisal. By Robert Tracinski November 9, 2015 New York’s attorney general, Eric Schneiderman, has started an investigation of Exxon Mobil “to determine whether the company lied to the public about the risks of climate change or to investors about how such risks might hurt the oil business.” According to The New York Times, its sources “said the inquiry would include a period of at least a decade during which Exxon Mobil funded outside groups that sought to undermine climate science.” See what they did there? To have a different view of climate science is to “undermine” it because there is no scientific study of the climate except that which they agree with. We should start with the observation that Exxon could not possibly have “lied” about climate change, even if it intended to, because first there would have to be a proven truth on the subject. If the company later contradicted warnings about global warming issued by scientists it funded in the 1980s, that would be justified by the… Read more »

Richard C (NZ)

>”A Bloomberg analysis describes the “weird theory” needed to transform this into a case of securities fraud” ‘Exxon Might Be in Trouble Over Climate Change’ Nov 6, 2015 By Matt Levine A weird thing that some people believe is that it’s illegal to lie. It’s totally legal to lie! […] It is so literally the American way that there is an actual part of our Constitution that says you can lie. That part is the First Amendment, which protects “freedom of speech,” and which also protects freedom of lying. “Some false statements are inevitable if there is to be an open and vigorous expression of views in public and private conversation,” shrugs the Supreme Court. Go ahead, lie, it’s cool. It’s especially cool — somewhat ironically — if your lies are political. […] So you can lie in politics, but you can’t lie in business.4 But today’s question is: Can you lie in politics, in business? Or: Can a business lie in politics? Corporations are people, my friend, and they have First Amendment rights, including the right to “seek to persuade the voting public” by advertising. But they can’t falsely persuade the buying… Read more »

Richard C (NZ)

‘We’re in the Early Stages of Largest Debt Default in US History’ by Porter Stansberry • November 10, 2015 The Next Debt-Clearing ‘Super Cycle’ Starts Now The most recent cycle is the one you’re most familiar with – the mortgage crisis. Six years after default rates normalized in 2003, they suddenly spiked up to almost 10% in 2009. But thanks to a massive and unprecedented government intervention, featuring trillions of dollars in credit protection, default rates immediately returned to normal in 2010. As a result, only about $1 trillion of corporate debt went into default during this cycle. You should know, however, that the regular market-clearing process of rising, peaking, and normalizing default rates did not occur in the last cycle. A massive, unprecedented intervention in the markets by the Federal Reserve stopped the default cycle in its tracks. As a result, trillions of dollars in risky debt did not enter default and were not written off. Over the last six years, this “victory” against bankruptcy and the credit cycle has led many government leaders and their economic apologists (like Paul Krugman) to declare victory. What they won’t admit is that the lack… Read more »

Mike Jowsey

RC, regards assets and liquidity, this interesting discussion regards wolves and rabbits might interest you….

Richard C (NZ)

Surprising “assets” Mike. Never thought of that. Too late for me now though. I watched an Al Jazeera doco tonight, “Putin’s Russia”. A local rural community was being prosecuted because they had devised an alternative currency to the rouble. Called a “lotion” (I think it was), the note was backed by a bucket of potatoes. More like a futures contract really. The note was issued to the community, used as currency, then redeemed at time of potato harvest. A fixed measure of barley was a currency (no note or “scrip” though I don’t think) in Roman times before wheat became staple. The principle behind the Russian alternative is described here: ‘Fundamentals of Alternative Currencies and Value Measurement’ Essentially, a currency should be a credit instrument that is spent into circulation by a trusted issuer on the basis of his commitment to accept it back in payment for desired goods and services that he is ready, willing and able to deliver. A currency can be issued individually by a single issuer or jointly by a group of trusted issuers. Continues>>>>>> NZ currency was an evolution: Varied currency In the early 19th century a… Read more »


I got back from 3 weeks work trip in the UK on Friday to find that an arsonist had set fire to the dunes by our house during the week, forcing the evacuation of the street.

My inlaws had to rescue our poor dog who was cowering in the garden in a pall of acrid smoke

If it’s not sea level rise it’s something else…

Richard C (NZ)

‘Meridian Energy calls on Genesis to reverse Huntly coal-burner closure’ RICHARD MEADOWS November 6 2015 Meridian has asked rival generator Genesis to keep its coal-burners running, shortly after environmentalists celebrated the impending closure. The Huntly power station’s capacity of 953 megawatts will be cut by more than half when it shuts its remaining coal-fired units in 2018. The decision, sparked by flat power demand, was applauded by the likes of Greenpeace. However, Meridian chief executive Mark Binns warned of potential under-supply following the closure, which would create challenges for the whole industry. The renewable energy company has a contract with Genesis to buy up to 150mw a year at Huntly, which it uses as insurance against a dry year. “This option ensures we can continue to supply customers at competitive prices without being exposed to purchasing electricity at extremely high spot prices if our fuel supply has literally dried up,” Binns said. Speaking at Meridian’s annual general meeting in Auckland on Friday, he said the company had approached Genesis to extend the option beyond the planned closure and believed others would also want to see the units remain open. “This appears to be… Read more »


All climate change – yes ALL – is 100% natural and has nothing to do with carbon dioxide. It’s obvious that rising CO2 levels have not affected temperatures this century, and there is absolutely no valid physics that any of you can produce to show why climate should be affected by CO2. The global mean temperature varies in cycles that appear to be regulated by planetary orbits and variations in solar intensity, cosmic rays etc which probably also relate to planetary orbits. For example, the eccentricity of Earth’s orbit has a cycle of about 100,000 years which is thought to relate to the spacing of glacial periods, this being because the annual mean distance of the Sun varies over that 100,000 year cycle. There are numerous cycles, but the two dominant ones in the space of a few thousand years have periods of about 1,000 years and 60 years. Both were rising in the 30 years to 1998, but now we have slight net cooling for 30 years, and probably about 500 years of long term cooling due to start within 100 years. Solar intensity can also vary because of variations in cloud… Read more »


Herr Thomas of Hot Topic is complaining that the Paris police are taking away people’s democratic rights to protest about climate change

One wonders if this person has any empathy at all, or whether it is “all about me”. What about the democratic rights of the 160 people slaughtered in the name of Allah?

Herr Thomas of Hot Topic was recently “puking” at the Christchurch coastal residents having their democratic rights taken away during the district plan process. Obviously, democracy is OK as long as it supports his favorite pastimes.

Richard C (NZ)

LukesAreWrongToo [Doug Cotton]. Who is/are the “you” that you are addressing the above comment to Doug? It cannot be me, I’m not a “Luke” (or a Warmer) and I’ve done my “due diligence”. Maybe the odd Luke here but the Warmers appear to have gone away. In other words, don’t expect a response from any Lukes to your comment in terms of counter argument. There is however a bit of an issue around the blogs in regard to your approach Doug. For example, the PSI thread here: ‘Even ‘Lukewarmer’ Position on Global Warming has Become Untenable’ Written by on 16 Nov 2015 # Rosco 2015-11-27 20:09 The real question that needs to be answered in this series of comments is this Why does Doug use a multitude of various aliases to give the appearance that his arguments have support ? Isn’t that associated with multiple personality disorder – “a rare dissociative disorder in which two or more personalities with distinct memories and behaviour patterns apparently exist in one individual.” We apparently have DC, LukesAreWrongToo, itsnotco2 and how many others. Sally Fields would be impressed – although she did act out 13… Read more »

Richard C (NZ)

>”Herr Thomas of Hot Topic is complaining that the Paris police are taking away people’s democratic rights to protest about climate change”

As I understand, the police stopped them crashing the sanctity of what had become a memorial site and centre of grief, and slammed them in the cells – well done.

How the climate activists thought they had a “right” to be so anti-social and to display such lack of empathy is astounding. Thomas’ spin equally distasteful.


They were throwing rocks at the police and trampling on flowers left as memorials.

I’ve been out of the country for three weeks and there have been two massacres while I have been away. We live in sad and dangerous times.

ralf ellis

Re: Modulation of Ice Ages via Precession and Dust-Albedo Feedbacks A new paper proving that CO2 is a minor player in the drama that is the Earth’s climate. (The article I produced has turned into a science paper). Abstract We present here a simple and novel proposal for the modulation and rhythm of ice ages and interglacials during the late Pleistocene. While the standard Milankovitch-precession theory fails to explain the long intervals between interglacials, these can be accounted for by a novel forcing and feedback system involving CO2, dust and albedo. During the glacial period, the high albedo of the northern ice sheets drives down global temperatures and CO2 concentrations, despite subsequent precessional forcing maxima. Over the following millennia CO2 is sequestered in the oceans and atmospheric concentrations eventually reach a critical minima of about 200 ppm, which causes a die-back of temperate and boreal forests and grasslands, especially at high altitude. The ensuing soil erosion generates dust storms, resulting in increased dust deposition and lower albedo on the northern ice sheets. As northern hemisphere insolation increases during the next Milankovitch cycle, the dust-laden ice-sheets absorb considerably more insolation and undergo rapid melting,… Read more »

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